El sistema educativo ecuatoriano; Impactos


The Ecuadorian educational system; Impacts


O sistema educacional equatoriano; Impactos




Erika Elizabeth Yamasque-Martnez I
Holger Patricio Castillo-Mazn II








Correspondencia: elymartinez@hotmail.co.uk.

Ciencias de la Educacin

Artculo de Investigacin


*Recibido: 01 de abril de 2023 *Aceptado: 13 de mayo de 2023 * Publicado: 02 de junio de 2023


        I.            Mster Universitario en Educacin Bilinge, Licenciada en Ciencias de la Educacin, Profesora de Idiomas, Docente Universitario, Escuela Superior Politcnica de Chimborazo, Ecuador.

      II.            Licenciado en Ciencias de la Educacin, Profesor de Idiomas, Docente Universitario, Escuela Superior Politcnica de Chimborazo, Ecuador.


El estudio titulado El sistema educativo ecuatoriano; impactos se realiz con el propsito de recopilar y analizar informacin respecto al impacto social en el sistema educativo ecuatoriano. Los instrumentos utilizados fueron los siguientes: una entrevista aplicada a los principales docentes de ingls como lengua extranjera y una encuesta formulario aplicado a los estudiantes, la informacin recolectada fue categorizada de acuerdo a las dos variables de la investigacin y para el anlisis de los datos de los estudiantes, adems, la informacin recolectada fue triangulada con los resultados de la entrevista, la opinin de los estudiantes y el marco terico para resaltar los principales hallazgos, los resultados reflejaron algunas falencias estructurales y polticas en el Sistema Educativo ecuatoriano pero al mismo tiempo, se evidenci que los docentes y estudiantes tienen muchas ganas de dar lo mejor de s para superar las adversidades de la pandemia.

Palabras Claves: Impacto Social, Sistema Educativo Ecuatoriano.



The study entitled "The Ecuadorian educational system; impacts was conducted with the purpose to gather and analyse information regarding the social impact in the Ecuadorian educational system. The instruments used were as follows: an interview applied to the main EFL teachers, and a survey form applied to the students. The collected information was categorized according to the two variables of the research and for the analysis of the data from the students. Furthermore, the compiled information was triangulated with the results from the interview, the opinion of the students and the theoretical framework to highlight the principal findings. The results reflected some structural and political shortcoming in the Ecuadorian Educational System but at the same time, it was evidenced that teachers and students are very eager to put their best to overcome the pandemic adversities.

Keywords: Social Impact; Ecuadorian Educational System.



O estudo intitulado "O sistema educacional equatoriano; impactos" foi realizado com o objetivo de coletar e analisar informaes sobre o impacto social no sistema educacional equatoriano. Os instrumentos utilizados foram os seguintes: uma entrevista aplicada aos principais professores de ingls como lngua estrangeira e uma pesquisa formulrio aplicado aos alunos. As informaes coletadas foram categorizadas de acordo com as duas variveis da pesquisa e para anlise dos dados dos alunos. Alm disso, as informaes compiladas foram trianguladas com os resultados da entrevista, a opinio dos alunos e o referencial terico para destacar as principais concluses.Os resultados refletiram algumas deficincias estruturais e polticas no Sistema Educacional equatoriano, mas ao mesmo tempo, foi evidenciado que professores e alunos esto muito ansiosos para dar o melhor de si para superar as adversidades da pandemia.

Palavras-chave: Impacto Social; Sistema Educacional Equatoriano.



The social confinement helped to strengthen family relationships and to value and love our relatives while they are alive. This crisis helped to improve our health care habits and develop strategies to protect ourselves, our families and communities. These would be considered the positive aspects of Coronavirus, but we cannot diminish its negative impact, in the whole Ecuadorian educational system, where it was evidenced lots of weaknesses and anomalies that affected to students in all Ecuadorian regions, most of them who do not have access to technology and technological devices in their houses. In this scenario teachers have reinvented their methodology upon trendy informatic technologies and resources to help their students.

It is important to highlight that teachers have worked too hard to rethink, redesign and revolute their teaching methodologies. The educational process due to the pandemic was forced to adopt a virtual modality. This fact evidenced new opportunities for education. For citing some examples, Luo, J., Boland, R., & Chan, C. (2020) argue that technology and web-based education facilitate collaboration in either real time or asynchronously since by the incorporation of rich multimedia and other visuals learning is more dynamic and attractive and further appraisal activities became easier to manage.

From the view of Melnyk (2015) technology permits teachers to make their classrooms more creative, interactive and interesting, and to collaborate with peers around the world to share-design different learning experiences for their students. In this sense, the teachers roles, the institutions visions and the curriculum have been modified with the aim to satisfy the students and society needs resulting from the pandemic outbreak and provide a better experience in learning.

The conclusion of this study was that practice makes perfect, and that natural conversations are more likely to succeed.

Theorethical framework

What is teaching

Teaching can be defined in multiple ways and understood in the same sense. It could be seen as a mere job of being a teacher as defined in the Cambridge Online Dictionary; as the profession of those who give instructions, especially in an elementary or a secondary school or a university stated by Havighurst (2018); as the act of producing understanding or showing up with the goals sustained by Elbow, P. H. (1968); or as the an act of love, of shared interiorization, of liberation where there is not an expert teacher who teaches to ignorant students but them both construct their teaching interdependently as defined by Freire (1970).

In this regard, it becomes necessary to historically understand what teaching is, due to its conceptions changes as the time and humankind evolve. To start with, for Confucious (561 B.C.) considered the first famous private teacher in the history of education, teaching is training people to live with integrity mainly focused on creating ethical models of family and public interaction Hirsch, S. (2020).

In the middle age teaching was conducted at all by the Catholic Church and has the characteristics of a mechanical transmission of technical knowledge. In this period the students were encouraged to get practical hands on experience of different things and learn from the experiences of hunters about wildlife, and to learn about agriculture and livestock from farmers and peasants. While at colonial times, where teaching was mainly a task performed by housewives and ministers, it was principally directed to assist in the consolidation of a foreign culture, the one of the colonizers who ruled over the territory. The process was carried out basically through teaching reading, writing and religion in the schools, and much of the teaching was done by requiring students to memorize subject content Hirsch, S. (2020).

Later in the modern times, where mass education was required in order to select intellectual talent for a complex division of labour, teaching was conceived as a very viable tool for modernizing a traditional society; therefore, it was established an educational system based on disciplinary contents within a technical, systematic, and efficiency-based framework. On the contrary, marking a clear distance from the indoctrination conceptions of the aforementioned periods, in the postmodernism, teaching aims on fostering critical thinking, production of knowledge, development of individual and social identity, self-creation. Further the teachers role is thought to lead students to discover new things by providing them with opportunities to discuss, debate, reflect, create, and be critical Khalili, S. (2011). It is important to manifest that the postmodern conception of teaching and education is considered to be only a theoretical model since it never has been applied in any education system around the world.


The Ecuadorian educational system

The current Ecuadorian educational system is under the framework of the National Constitution of 2008, in which the intercultural, plurinational, and multiethnic nature of the Ecuadorian citizenship is recognized. Further, from this constitution the Right of Nature is stablished as mandatory consequently all the education levels in the country are framed within the principles of Good Living, which is a philosophical and political worldview of Kichwa indigenous peoples of the Andean Region, where human beings are interconnected with our planet Earth and the whole cosmos Ruano, J., (2019); and, it adopts approaches for Ecuadors education transformation: a focus on student [centred] learning; and a focus on teacher quality Schneider, B., Estarellas, P., & Bruns, B. (2019).

The constitution of 2008 and various education acts such as the Ley Orgnica de Eduacin Intercultural (LOEI, 2011) and Ley Orgnica de Educacin Superior (LOES, 2010) provide the legal framework for the Ecuadorian education system. The Ministerio de Educacin (MINEDUC) is the organism responsible for primary and secondary education, the Consejo de Educacin Superior (CES) is the organism responsible for higher education policy, but the implementation of these policy lies on the Secretara de Educacin Superior, Ciencia, Tecnologa e Innovacin (SENESCYT). The organism responsible for quality assurance in higher education is the Consejo de Evaluacin, Acreditacin y Aseguramiento de la Calidad de la Educacin Superior (CEAACES) Ministerio de Cultura y Patrimonio (2018).

The main language of education in Ecuador is Spanish, but there exist institutions in which the means of communication and for teaching and learning is Kichwa. Education in Ecuador is compulsory for all pupils in primary and secondary education, it is also mandatory for pupils to learn a foreign language, usually English (Nuffic, 2016). This language considered to be of great importance.

The Ecuadorian curriculum which is being applied from 2016 in the Sierra and from 2017 in the Coast, is set up in three levels of curricular concretion, the first laying on the responsibility of the Ministry of Education, the second on the educational institutions and the third on the teachers. Further, it is constituted by three educational levels Inicial, Bsica and Bachillerato.

Inicial is divides into two sublevels: Inicial 1 for children under 3 years and Inicial 2 for children in the ages from 3 to 5). In the case of Bsica, it is divided into four levels: Preparatoria, Bsica Elemental, Bsica Media, and Bsica Superior, and finally Bachillerato constituting the three last school years has three modalities Bachillerato General Unificado, Bachillerato Tcnico and Bachillerato Internacional. In the case of higher education there exist regular, distance and online modalities and the programs length depends on their major and level.

The curriculum is mainly based on the development of competencies and besides it is thought to support educational goals of innovation, justice and solidarity which will prepare Ecuadorian learners to engage successfully in local and international communities in the XXI century. To accomplish this target new focus on student learning results and key reforms of teacher policy has been implemented, such as: higher standards for new recruitment, regular evaluation of teacher performance with promotion based on performance, scholarships, use of Technology based methodologies, among others Ministerio de Educacin del Ecuador, (2016).


Modern technology, strategies, techniques, materials (Current trends)

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has dramatically changed the nature and horizon of education, in the way that, a rethinking and reshaping of educational systems are required. Multiple world organizations; regional, state and local governments; the academy; and, different productive sectors have implemented strategies to help students continue studying. In this framework, technology has become the leading tool to guaranty this human right.

The UNESCO Associated Schools Network (ASPnet) and UNESCO IITE joined forces to offer online webinars to explore themes regarding Open Educational Practices, Open Educational Resources, and distance learning during COVID-19 pandemic. China developed two Global Online Learning Platform (Course International and XuetangX) to Support Learning during COVID-19 Pandemic UNESCO (2020). In the case of Ecuador, the Ministry of Education in coordination with some local universities launched the Plan Educativo COVID-19; a contingency plan aimed to support and facilitate teaching and learning processes guarantying students physical, psychological and emotional integrity Ministerio de Educacin (2020).

In this scenario, technology shifted from being just a content dissemination tool to convert itself in the means for making it possible to maintain teachers and students relationships, work on personalized strategies, and foster students independence. According to Luo, J., Boland, R., & Chan, C. H. (2020). technology and web-based education facilitate collaboration in either real time or asynchronously, by the incorporation of rich multimedia and other visuals learning is more dynamic and attractive, and further appraisal activities became easier to manage.

Martin, L., & Tapp, D. (2019), argue that technological resources such as Zoom, Teams, and Skype let teachers and students maintain more varied and frequent interactions overcoming the temporo-spatial limitations of conventional education. Regarding to Microsoft Teams, the authors state that this is a unified communication and collaboration platform that integrates all chats, meetings, files and apps live in a single workspace, facilitating the interaction, collaboration and sharing of the participants.

In the case of Microsoft Skype, Melnyk (2015) explains that it is a telecommunication application software specialized in providing video chat and voice calls through computers, tablets and mobile devices. Skype in the classroom is a free tool that Skype has set up on its website, it permits teachers make their classrooms more interactive and interesting, make students meet other students, and talk to experts. Further, this academic tool set opportunities for teachers to collaborate with peers around the world and share and design different learning experiences for their students.

Zoom is a collaborative, cloud-based videoconferencing ser-vice offering features including online meetings, group

Zoom is a collaborative, cloud-based videoconferencing ser-vice offering features including online meetings, group

Zoom is a collaborative, cloud-based videoconferencing service which from the perspective of Archibald, et al. (2019) it offers the same resources as Teams and Skype do, but includes security features such as user-specific authentication, real-time encryption of meetings, and the ability to backup recordings to online remote server networks or local drives, which later can be shared securely for the purpose of collaboration, revision, and reinforcement of knowledge.

The reshaping of educational systems due to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, further made it possible the integration of conventional social networks such as YouTube, Facebook, Messenger, and WhatsApp into academic strategies and activities, factor that from the view of Manca (2020) offers multiple benefits like the development of students interdependence, collaboration spirit, autonomy, critical skills for using internet information and their abilities to assertively communicate.


Communicative competence

Basically, the communicative competence is the persons ability to express him/herself bearing in mind social, cultural and situations factors that demand the use of different codes. For a better and thorough understanding, it results important to highlight some definitions accepted and used worldwide which along the history has been modified.

Hymes, D., (1972), states that the communicative competence is the ability to use grammatical competence in a variety of communicative situations. Canale, M. (1987) explicate communicative competence as a synthesis of an underlying system of knowledge and skill needed for communication. While, Savignon, S., (2018) defines it as the ability to function in a truly communicative setting in which linguistic competence must adapt itself to the total informational input, both linguistic and paralinguistic, of one or more interlocutors.

The communicative competence as detailed in the Common European Framework for References is divided into three fundamental competences: (1) linguistic competence, (2) sociolinguistic competence and (3) pragmatic competence; while for Canale, M., (1983) the communicative competence involves four sub competences, explained as follows:

1. Grammatical competence that is knowledge of the language code which includes grammatical rules, vocabulary, pronunciation, spelling, et cetera.

2. Sociolinguistic competence that is the mastery of the sociocultural code of language use such as appropriate application of vocabulary, politeness and style in a given situation.

3. Discourse competence that is the ability to combine language structures into different types of cohesive texts, for instance political speech, poetry, et cetera.

4. Strategic competence that is the knowledge of verbal and non-verbal communication strategies to enhance the efficiency of communication and enable the learner in overcoming difficulties when communication breakdowns occur.

Being communicatively competent means being capable of expressing wants and needs, developing social closeness, exchanging information, and fulfilling social etiquette routines. In these terms, a good social interaction depends on how communicative you are. Therefore, its development constitutes a target of great importance and interest for teachers and students in order to succeed in the sociocultural contexts in which they live-in Tarvin, L., (2015).


Motivation and its role in English teaching

The increasing demand of English teachers at different education stages from primary to tertiary is a constant matter to take into consideration, due to the new curriculum at each one of the institutions, which seek for new abilities and skills in a foreign language, trying to give their students competences to succeed in their professions. Additionally, English language has been set as an important tool in each one of the human areas. The teachers, the institutions and the curriculum has suffered modifications with the aim to satisfy the students and society needs, in order to provide a better experience in learning a new language Lamb, M. (2017).

Particularly one pedagogical aspect has been taken into account in all these curriculum modifications. The motivational aspect, which is considered as a social aspect, has a primary interest in and out the classroom environment. Motivation has an incredible preponderance in teaching a new language in all contexts of the educational system, but it reflects a special issue in formal secondary and tertiary education. All of them related with the decision making about the selection of materials, kind of assessment and the technology to be used Dornyei, Z. (2015).


Teaching experience acquired skill

According to Knig, J., Blmeke, S. & Kaiser, G. (2015) the pedagogical knowledge and teaching experience, is closely connected with some of the characteristics of teacher into the educational area. Additionally, the teachers skills can be understood under many different circumstances such as education grades, classroom situations, allotted time spent on teaching and the additional practice development.

Teaching experience is considered to be real as time passes by. Effectiveness is the goal pursuit by all teachers, under several different circumstances, situations and problems they have faced during the working life-time Kini, T., & Podolsky, A. (2016).

Clearly set, as teachers gain more experience, students learn and make their learning more significant. The environment is one of the principal areas where teachers gather knowledge and skills to support the students learning and the school as a whole. However, not all unexperienced teachers can be considered as less effective than others, not only experienced teachers are more effective. Every teaching situation is particular and can be distinguished according to an analysis of the characteristics it displays, stated by Kini, T., & Podolsky, A. (2016).

Salmona, M., Partlo, M., Kaczynski, D., & Leonard, S. N. (2015), mentioned that there exist four dynamic scenarios of learning which are accommodative, diverging, assimilating, and convergent. Each one requires some necessary and specific techniques to apply with the learners. It is known that learners go from one stage to another as result of acquired learning experiences, but there is no information about how the transition from life experience into professional practice occurs.

On the other hand, learners start with an abstract conceptualization of knowledge and use an active experimentation of it, when they face unidentified situations. In addition, learners must find equilibrium between thought and action, based on what background knowledge they hold and the praxis of the same, suggested by Salmona, M., Partlo, M., Kaczynski, D., & Leonard, S. N. (2015). To sum up, it can be necessary to implement some strategies to help teachers in order to increase their teaching experience and to have a high-quality mentoring for beginners, and to seek for opportunities to share with other experienced teachers.


Technological platforms for teaching

The use of technology in education can transform the teaching learning process, and make it a meaningful, motivating and interesting experience for learners. The accurate usage of this tool may drastically alter the quality in education suggested by Kumar, S., Daniel, B.K. (2016). Consequently, many institutions invest every year in applying new platforms and technology to provide their students with the best tools, with the aim to improve their knowledge and satisfy their interests and needs related with the educational programs. In other words, the fast development of learning technologies and platforms, have the advantage of provide lots of benefits for the students, for example; they can search information, evaluate and assess, interact, communicate and solve different kind of learning problems Kumar, S., Daniel, B.K (2016).

E-learning is a tool that can be entirely carried out online where technology is the principal actor in the learning process. Lessons online can be synchronous, which means that the information is shared live by the teacher or asynchronous, which means that the information is already set in a platform without the presence of the instructor. According to Gros, B., & Garca-Pealvo, F. J. (2016), e-learning has become a significant approach to learning in public or private institutions, from elementary to university levels, such in formal and informal education. The evolution has transformed the teacher-centered (traditionalism) to student-centered system, where the student is the responsible of their own learning, the time they spend and the effort they set.

According to Poitras, E., Doleck, T., Huang, L., Li, S., & Lajoie, S. (2017) the use of technology transforms difficult topics for students in easy, interesting, meaningful and valuable content to be learned.

Some clear examples of these technological platforms, are those which have been created with the aim of providing autonomy and independence to the students, offering the administration of time, encouraging them to learn and collaborate using synchronous or asynchronous lessons and sharing information with others. Other than that, with this new model of learning the apprentices tend to create responsibility by their own.

To mention some of the tools that we can find as platforms we have: Edmodo: Educational tool, which use social network to create collaborative groups and provide educational materials. Socrative: allows teachers create exercises and games. Thinglink: permits teacher create music, sounds, text and photos. TED-Ed: create educational lessons in collaboration with others. Quizlet/Quizlet live: allows to create and share learning material. ClassDojo: community building, classroom communication platform. EduClipper: share and explore different kind of learning materials. Google Classroom: community learning tool for learning. Moodle: permits to recreate a classroom environment and share learning activities. Teams: is a robust software to share chats, audio, video meetings, file storage. Zoom: video conferencing tool to meet online, permits to record sessions and collaborate on projects.



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Polo del Conocimiento              

Revista Científico-Académica Multidisciplinaria

ISSN: 2550-682X

Casa Editora del Polo                                                 

Manta - Ecuador       

Dirección: Ciudadela El Palmar, II Etapa,  Manta - Manabí - Ecuador.

Código Postal: 130801

Teléfonos: 056051775/0991871420

Email: polodelconocimientorevista@gmail.com / director@polodelconocimiento.com

URL: https://www.polodelconocimiento.com/