Revista Polo del Conocimiento


Polo del Conocimiento

Hidrogeles inteligentes que entregan oxígeno para la regeneración del tejido cartilaginoso: Una revisión

Caterine Yesenia Carrasco-Montesdeoca, Paola Belén Salazar-Montero

Resumen


El cartílago es uno de los tejidos del cuerpo que no se repara por sí solo, los problemas asociados con el cartílago son muy comunes en todo el mundo y se consideran la principal causa de dolor y discapacidad, la falta de oxígeno en el tejido es una de las principales causas que hace que las células proliferen lentamente o a su vez no proliferen, dando como resultado una regeneración casi nula. Este problema despierta el interés de estudiar nuevos materiales con propiedades similares a la matriz extracelular nativa, capaces de entregar suministros de oxígeno, que permitan el crecimiento celular en ambientes hipóxicos para reparar el tejido cartilaginoso. De esta manera, el presente trabajo tiene la finalidad de investigar a través de la metodología de revisión bibliográfica los hidrogeles sus propiedades químicas y físicas óptimas que permitan responder a estímulos externos para liberar varios agentes bioactivos para promover una respuesta tisular deseable. En esta revisión bibliográfica también se explora diferentes tipos y características de hidrogeles y, específicamente, la gelatina metraciloilo por ser un tipo de hidrogel modificado que permite encapsular nanopartículas liberadoras de oxígeno, en presencia de medio acuoso y mediante la porosidad e hinchamiento controladas, permite el intercambio de sustancias entre el medio interno con el medio externo de la matriz. Además, en esta revisión bibliográfica también se discuten los métodos de síntesis de biomateriales liberadores de oxígeno y su mecanismo de liberación.


Palabras clave


Biomateriales inteligentes; regeneración del tejido cartilaginoso; gelatina metacrioilo (GelMA); nanopartículas liberadoras de oxígeno.

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DOI: 10.23857/pc.v6i7.2889

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